Independent Travel in Yunnan, China (中国云南省独自旅行)

The following information is about independent travel in Yunnan, China's south-westernmost province and its most ethnically and geographically varied.

Ever incomplete, this page has been compiled from personal experience, as well as academic, media and internet sources.  It will grow when readers contribute information, when I paste in reports shared on the Lonely Planet Thorn Tree, and
when I find the time to type more in. The motivation for this site was the lack of comprehensive English-language travel information on Yunnan.

Last updated 2005-12-18.

- Walter Stanish (

Map of Yunnan (云南地图)
Northwest Yunnan
Dali Prefecture (大理)
Deqin Prefecture (德钦)
Lijiang Prefecture (丽江)
Nujiang Prefecture (怒江)

Central Yunnan
Chuxiong Prefecture (楚雄)
Kunming Prefecture (昆明)
Yuxi Prefecture (玉溪)
Northeast Yunnan
Dongchuan Prefecture (东川)
Qujing Prefecture (曲靖)
Zhaotong Prefecture (照通
Southwest Yunnan
Baoshan Prefecture (保山)
Dehong Prefecture (德红)
Lincang Prefecture (临沧)

South Yunnan
Simao Prefecture (思茅)
Xishuangbanna Prefecture (西双版纳)

Southeast Yunnan
Honghe Prefecture (红河)
Wenshan Prefecture (文山)

Peoples of Yunnan
Caves in Yunnan
Online Maps of Yunnan
Entry from Laos

Entry from Vietnam
Crossing to Laos
Crossing to Burma
Crossing to Vietnam

Related links

Peoples of Yunnan
Yunnan is the most ethnically varied province in China.  The following is an outdated yet interesting excerpt from Yün-nan, the Link between India and the Yangtze, by Major H.R. Davies, 1909, pp. 332-333.  For up to date information regarding specific ethnicities, see the List of Chinese Ethnic Groups at English Wikipedia.  An enthnic distribution map in Chinese can be found here (2MB).

The numerous non-Chinese tribes that the traveler encounters in western China, form perhaps one of the most interesting features of travel in that country. It is safe to assert that in hardly any other part of the world is there such a large variety of languages and dialects, as are to be heard in the country which lies between Assam and the eastern border of Yün-nan and in the Indo-Chinese countries to the south of this region.

The reason of this is not hard to find. It lies in the physical characteristics of the country. It is the high mountain ranges and the deep swift-flowing rivers that have brought about the differences in customs and language, and the innumerable tribal distinctions, which are so perplexing to the enquirer into Indo-Chinese ethnology.

A tribe has entered Yün-nan from their original Himalayan or Tibetan home, and after increasing in numbers have found the land they have settled on not equal to their wants. The natural result has been the emigration of part of the colony. The emigrants, having surmounted pathless mountains and crossed unbridged rivers on extemporized rafts, have found a new place to settle in, and have felt no inclination to undertake such a journey again to revisit their old home.

Being without a written character in which to preserve their traditions, cut off from all civilizing influence of the outside world, and occupied merely in growing crops enough to support themselves, the recollection of their connection with their original ancestors has died out. It is not then surprising that they should now consider themselves a totally distinct race from the parent stock. Inter-tribal wars, and the practice of slave raiding so common among the wilder members of the Indo-Chinese family, have helped to still further widen the breach. In fact it may be considered remarkable that after being separated for hundreds, and perhaps in some case for thousands, of years, the languages of two distant tribes of the same family should bear to each other the marked general resemblance which is still to be found.

The hilly nature of the country and the consequent lack of good means of communication have also naturally militated against the formation of any large kingdoms with effective control over the mountainous districts. Directly we get to a flat country with good roads and navigable rivers, we find the tribal distinctions disappear, and the whole of the inhabitants are welded into a homogeneous people under a settled government, speaking one language.

Burmese as heard throughout the Irrawaddy valley is the same everywhere. A traveler from Rangoon to Bhamo (The Burmese capital to the Yunnan border) will find one language spoken throughout his journey, but an expedition of the same length in the hilly country to the east or to the west of the Irrawaddy valley would bring him into contact with twenty mutually unintelligible tongues.

The same state of things applies to Siam (Thailand) and Tong-king (North Vietnam) - one nation speaking one language in the flat country and a Tower of Babel in the hills.

Caves in Yunnan
The report from a Hong Mei Gui Cave Exploration Society 2002 Yunnan study is online here.

Online Maps of Yunnan
SOAS = School of Oriental and African Studies, HMG = Hong Mei Gui Cave Exploration Society, 0833 =, CHG = China Historical GIS

Northwest Yunnan

Dali Prefecture (大理白族自治州)

Almost every traveller to Yunnan visits Dali, and not without reason - the ancient capital of Dali lies nestled between the soaring Cang mountains and picturesque Ear Lake. The region is famous throughout China for it's marble, in fact right across China marble is called "Dali Stone"! Unfortunately, the quantity of travellers to the area has dramatically changed its character, and tourism is the overwhelmingly dominant industry in the area. Many travellers seeking to smoke locally grown marijuana (大嘛 / Da Ma) have promoted a significant and overt market in the plant. Despite the severe change of character in the city, Dali prefecture remains one of the most picturesque regions of Yunnan, and it's easy to strike off alone.

Painting of Buddha, Kingdom of Dali, Song Dynasty.
Painting of Gautama Buddha. Kingdom of Dali, Song Dynasty.
(Part of the Yunnan Provincial Museum collection, Kunming)

Deqin Prefecture (德钦)

Generally considered pretty damn cold - this is really the foothills of Tibet.
Lijiang Prefecture (丽江地区)

The domain of the Naxi and Lolo people, this region has been popularised and remade as 'Shangri-la' due to a handful of foreign visitors that wrote about their experiences here in the early 20th century. The botanist Joseph Rock, and the Russian Daoist Peter Goullart are the best known of these two. You can read Peter Goullart's book, Forgotten Kingdom, online.  You can also check out Rock's photos of the region here (that link also has a good, high-resolution, old map of the area).  Another foreigner in the area was the Austrian Botanist Baron Haendel-Mazzetti.

The Naxi's pictographic writing system is particularly interesting.  Samples can be viewed online at the Library of Congress Naxi Manuscript Collection.

A map of depressions in the area is online.  See also Map of Lijiang online at Yunnan Tourism.

We left a part of our outfit with Mr. Evans at Ta-li Fu (Dali) and with a new caravan of twenty-five animals traveled northward for six days to Li-chiang Fu (Lijiang). By taking a small road we hoped to find good collecting in the pine forests three days from Ta-li (Dali), but instead there was a total absence of animal life. The woods were beautiful, parklike stretches which in a country like California would be full of game, but here were silent and deserted. During the fourth and fifth days we were still in the forests, but on the sixth we crossed a pass 10,000 feet high and descended abruptly into a long marshy plain where at the far end were the gray outlines of Li-chiang (Lijiang) dimly visible against the mountains.

Wu and I galloped ahead to find a temple for our camp, leaving Heller and my wife to follow. A few pages from her journal tell of their entry into the city.

We rode along a winding stone causeway and halted on the outskirts of the town to wait until the caravan arrived. Neither Roy nor Wu was in sight but we expected that the mafus would ask where they had gone and follow, for of course we could not speak a word of the language. Already there was quite a sensation as we came down the street, for our sudden appearance seemed to have stupefied the people with amazement. One old lady looked at me with an indescribable expression and uttered what sounded exactly like a long-drawn "Mon Dieu" of disagreeable surprise.

I tried smiling at them but they appeared too astonished to appreciate our friendliness and in return merely stared with open mouths and eyes. We halted and immediately the street was blocked by crowds of men, women, and children who poured out of the houses, shops, and cross-streets to gaze in rapt attention. When the caravan arrived we moved on again expecting that the mafus had learned where Roy had gone, but they seemed to be wandering aimlessly through the narrow winding streets. Even though we did not find a camping place we afforded the natives intense delight.

I felt as though I were the chief actor in a circus parade at home, but the most remarkable attraction there could not have equaled our unparalleled success in Li-chiang. On the second excursion through the town we passed down a cross-street, and suddenly from a courtyard at the right we heard feminine voices speaking English.

"It's a girl. No, it's a boy. No, no, can't you see her hair, it's a girl!" Just then we caught sight of three ladies, unmistakably foreigners although dressed in Chinese costume. They were Mrs. A. Kok, wife of the resident Pentecostal Missionary, and two assistants, who rushed into the street as soon as they had determined my sex and literally "fell upon my neck." They had not seen a white woman since their arrival there four years ago and it seemed to them that I had suddenly dropped from the sky.

While we were talking Wu appeared to guide us to the camp. They had chosen a beautiful temple with a flower-filled courtyard on the summit of a hill overlooking the city. It was wonderfully clean and when our beds, tables, and chairs were spread on the broad stone porch it seemed like a real home.

The next days were busy ones for us all, Roy and Heller setting traps, and I working at my photography. We let it be known that we would pay well for specimens, and there was an almost uninterrupted procession of men and boys carrying long sticks, on which were strung frogs, rats, toads, and snakes. They would simply beam with triumph and enthusiasm. Our fame spread and more came, bringing the most ridiculous tame things--pigeons, maltese cats, dogs, white rabbits, caged birds, and I even believe we might have purchased a girl baby or two, for mothers stood about with little brown kiddies on their backs as though they really would like to offer them to us but hardly dared.

The temple priest was a good looking, smooth-faced chap, and hidden under his coat he brought dozens of skins. I believe that his religious vows did not allow him to handle animals--openly--and so he would beckon Roy into the darkness of the temple with a most mysterious air, and would extract all sorts of things from his sleeves just like a sleight-of-hand performer. He was a rich man when we left!

The people are mostly tribesmen--Mosos, Lolos, Tibetans, and many others. The girls wear their hair "bobbed off" in front and with a long plait in back. They wash their hair once--on their wedding day--and then it is wrapped up in turbans for the rest of their lives. The Tibetan women dress their hair in dozens of tiny braids, but I don't believe there is any authority that they ever wash it, or themselves either.

Li-chiang (Lijiang) was our first collecting camp and we never had a better one. On the morning after our arrival Heller found mammals in half his traps, and in the afternoon we each put out a line of forty traps which brought us fifty mammals of eleven species. This was a wonderful relief after the many days of travel through country devoid of animal life.


(Lijiang) is a fur market of considerable importance for the Tibetans bring down vast quantities of skins for sale and trade. Lambs, goats, foxes, cats, civets, pandas, and flying squirrels hang in the shops and there are dozens of fur dressers who do really excellent tanning.

This city is a most interesting place especially on market day, for its inhabitants represent many different tribes with but comparatively few Chinese. By far the greatest percentage of natives are the Mosos who are semi-Tibetan in their life and customs. They were originally an independent race who ruled a considerable part of northern Yün-nan, and Li-chiang was their ancient capital. To the effeminate and "highly civilized" Chinese they are "barbarians," but we found them to be simple, honest and wholly delightful people. Many of those whom we met later had never seen a white woman, and yet their inherent decency was in the greatest contrast to that of the Chinese who consider themselves so immeasurably their superior.

The Mosos have large herds of sheep and cattle, and this is the one place in the Orient except in large cities along the coast, where we could obtain fresh milk and butter. As with the Tibetans, buttered tea and tsamba (parched oatmeal) are the great essentials, but they also grow quantities of delicious vegetables and fruit. Buttered tea is prepared by churning fresh butter into hot tea until the two have become well mixed. It is then thickened with finely ground tsamba until a ball is formed which is eaten with the fingers. The combination is distinctly good when the ingredients are fresh, but if the butter happens to be rancid the less said of it the better.

The natives of this region are largely agriculturists and raise great quantities of squash, turnips, carrots, cabbage, potatoes, onions, corn, peas, beans, oranges, pears, persimmons and nuts. While traveling we filled our saddle pockets with pears and English walnuts or chestnuts and could replenish our stock at almost any village along the road.

Everything was absurdly cheap. Eggs were usually about eight cents (Mexican) a dozen, and we could always purchase a chicken for an empty tin can, or two for a bottle. In fact, the latter was the greatest desideratum and when offers of money failed to induce a native to pose for the camera a bottle nearly always would decide matters in our favor.

In Li-chiang (Lijiang) we learned that there was good shooting only twelve miles north of the city on the Snow Mountain range, the highest peak of which (Jade Dragon Snow Mountain) rises 18,000 feet above the sea. We left a part of our outfit at Mr. Kok's house and engaged a caravan of seventeen mules to take us to the hunting grounds. Mr. Kok assisted us in numberless ways while we were in the vicinity of Li-chiang and in other parts of the country. He took charge of all our mail, sending it to us by runners, loaned us money when it was difficult to get cash from Ta-li Fu (Dali) and helped us to engage servants and caravans.

It had rained almost continually for five days and a dense gray curtain of fog hung far down in the valley, but on the morning of October 11 we awoke to find ourselves in another world. We were in a vast amphitheater of encircling mountains, white almost to their bases, rising ridge on ridge, like the foamy billows of a mighty ocean. At the north, silhouetted against the vivid blue of a cloudless sky, towered the great Snow Mountain (Jade Dragon Snow Mountain), its jagged peaks crowned with gold where the morning sun had kissed their summits. We rode toward it across a level rock-strewn plain and watched the fleecy clouds form, and float upward to weave in and out or lose themselves in the vast snow craters beside the glacier. It was an inspiration, that beautiful mountain, lying so white and still in its cradle of dark green trees. Each hour it seemed more wonderful, more dominating in its grandeur, and we were glad to be of the chosen few to look upon its sacred beauty.

In the early afternoon we camped in a tiny temple which nestled into a grove of spruce trees on the outskirts of a straggling village. To the north the Snow Mountain (Jade Dragon Snow Mountain) rose almost above us, and on the east and south a grassy rock-strewn plain rolled away in gentle undulations to a range of hills which jutted into the valley like a great recumbent dragon.

A short time after our camp was established we had a visit from an Austrian botanist, Baron Haendel-Mazzetti, who had been in the village for two weeks. He had come to Yün-nan for the Vienna Museum before the war, expecting to remain a year, but already had been there three. Surrounded as he was by Tibet, Burma, and Tonking, his only possible exit was by way of the four-month overland journey to Shanghai. He had little money and for two years had been living on Chinese food. He dined with us in the evening, and his enjoyment of our coffee, bread, kippered herring, and other canned goods was almost pathetic. 
- Roy Champan Andrews, Camps and Trails in China, 1916-1917.

Nujiang Prefecture (怒江傈僳族自治州)

Picture an incredibly long valley, with a tropical at the bottom and year-round snow on either side, and you have the quintessential image of the area. The prefecture actually incorporates parts of three major river-gorges: the Irrawaddy (Dulong / 独龙), the Salween (Nujiang / 怒江) and the Mekong (Lancangjiang / 澜沧江), of which the Dulong is the most remote. The province is named "Nujiang Lisu Autonomous Region", after the Lisu minority that live in the area. UNESCO listed the area as world heritage in 2003, and describes it as "one of the world's least disturbed temperate ecological areas, an epicenter of Chinese endemic species and a natural gene pool of great richness."

An English map is online, and a lodge operated by a local Tibetan has a website here.  See also Map of Nujiang online at Yunnan Travel.

The Upper Reaches of the Yangtze

We left Habala, on November 23, for a village called Phete where the natives had assured us we would find good hunters with dogs. For almost the entire distance the road skirted the rim of the Yangtze gorge and there the view of the great chasm was even more magnificent than that we had left. While its sides are not fantastically sculptured and the colors are softer than those of the Grand Cañon of the Colorado, nevertheless its grandeur is hardly less imposing and awe-inspiring. If Yün-nan is ever made accessible by railroads this gorge should become a Mecca for tourists, for it is without doubt one of the most remarkable natural sights in the world. - Roy Champan Andrews, Camps and Trails in China, 1916-1917.

Central Yunnan

Chuxiong Prefecture (楚雄彝族自治州)
"Chuxiong Yi Autonomous Region" is named after the Yi ethnic minority that live in the area. The Yi are one of the largest ethnic minorities in China, and are spread throughout the southwest.  See also Map of Chuxiong online at Yunnan Travel.

Kunming Prefecture (昆明地区)

Most travellers don't really check out this city, except perhaps to go to the Stone Forest, but there's plenty more to see.  (See also: Images of Kunming.)

Kunming City (昆明市)

Kunming (previously known as Yün-nan Fu) is the capital of Yunnan.  It sits astride Lake Dian, about 2000 metres above sea level.

For alternative accomodation, decent doubles in smaller local hotels go for as little as 60元.  Also, someone asked where to get cold-weather gear. There are stores selling 'North Face' gear all over the place (eg. walk west from Camellia Hotel along Dongfeng Dong Lu [东风东路] and there's one on the north-side before you get to the China Telecom building). Easy to find, and cheap.  An organised pickpocket gang has been reported in the Kunming KFC.

Kunming skyline
Skyline, central Kunming.

When we arrived at Yün-nan Fu (Kunming) we found a surprisingly cosmopolitan community housed within its grim old walls; some were consuls, some missionaries, some salt, telegraph, or customs officials in the Chinese employ, and others represented business firms in Hongkong, but all received us with open handed hospitality characteristic of the East.

We thought that after leaving Hongkong our evening clothes would not again be used, but they were requisitioned every night for we were guests at dinners given by almost everyone of the foreign community. Mr. Howard Page, a representative of the Standard Oil Company, proved a most valuable friend, and through him we were able to obtain a caravan and make other arrangements for the transportation of our baggage. M. Henry Wilden, the French Consul, an ardent sportsman and a charming gentleman, took an active interest in our affairs and arranged a meeting for us with the Chinese Commissioner of Foreign Affairs. Moreover, he later transported our trunks to Hongkong with his personal baggage and assisted us in every possible way.


In August, 1916, just before we reached Yün-nan Fu
(Kunming) there was an exposé of opium smuggling which throws an illuminating side light on the corruption of some Chinese officials. Opium can be purchased in Yün-nan Fu (Kunming) for two dollars (Mexican) an ounce, while in Shanghai it is worth ten dollars (Mexican). - Roy Champan Andrews, Camps and Trails in China, 1916-1917.

Traveller's reports
"Take a bus to the Western hills cablecar, get a ticket up one way (40 yuan), turn left, pay 20 yuan entry fee, walk to Dragon Gate lookout, & then downhill to the exit, take the mini train back to the carpark (1yuan?), then take the other cablecar across the lake to the minorities village, then a bus back to Kunming." - chrisj, 2004-04-01

Yuxi Prefecture (玉溪地区)

Many foreigners pass through Yuxi, but few explore it.  Map of Yuxi online at Yunnan Travel.

Northeast Yunnan

Dongchuan Prefecture (东川地区)

Qujing Prefecture (曲靖地区)
Map of Qujing at Yunnan Travel.

Zhaotong Prefecture (照通地区)
"Cedars, held sacred, with shrines in the shelter of their branches, dot the plain; peach-trees and pear-trees were now in full bloom; the harvest was ripening in the fields. There were black-faced sheep in abundance, red cattle with short horns, and the ubiquitous water-buffalo. Over the level roads primitive carts, drawn by red oxen, were rumbling in the dust. There were mud villages, poor and falling into ruins; there were everywhere signs of poverty and famine. Children ran about naked, or in rags. We passed the likin-barrier, known by its white flag, and I was not even asked for my visiting card, nor were my boxes looked into�they were as beggarly as the district�but poor carriers were detained, and a few cash unjustly wrung from them. At a crowded-teahouse, a few miles from the city, we waited for the stragglers, while many wayfarers gathered in to see me." - G.E. Morrison, An Australian in China, 1894.
Southeast Yunnan

Honghe Prefecture (红河哈尼族彝族自治州)

These days primarily famous for it's tobacco production, Honghe also sports scenic rice terraces along its major river, the Yuanjiang (more commonly known to westerners as the 'Red River'), which flows in to the Vietnamese capital Hanoi and then the South China Sea. Proper name: Honghe Hani and Yi Ethnic Minorities Autonomous Prefecture.
The 1956-57 discovery of Kaiyuan Pithecus at Little Dragon Pool (小龙潭 / Xiaolongtan) in north-eastern Kaiyuan county put Honghe on the world archeological map. Some fossilised teeth discovered were from Ramapithecus, an ancestor to modern man.

The western part of the Honghe region is visible on this Chinese map of Simao.  A general map of the region is also online at Yunnan Travel.
Wenshan Prefecture (文山)

This area, bordering Vietnam, is famous as the scene of some Chinese / Vietnamese battles.  There is a stylised Map of Wenshan at Yunnan Travel.

South Yunnan

Simao Prefecture (思茅地区)
Often used simply as a transit-point by tourists, Simao lies on a vast and relatively low mountain plain. For years it was a hotbed of malaria, though it is fairly safe these days. Reported attractions, none of which I saw, are: Laiyanghe National Forest Reserve, Shimahe Reservoir, Meizihu Park Sleeping Buddha. Reports, anyone?

A good Chinese map of Simao is online
here.  A stylised general map is also online. Xishuangbanna Prefecture (西双版纳傣族自治州)

A stylised general map is online at Yunnan Travel.

Southwest Yunnan

Baoshan Prefecture (保山)
See the Map of Baoshan online at Yunnan Tourism.
Dehong Prefecture (德宏地区)
See the Map of Dehong online at Yunnan Tourism.
Lincang Prefecture (临沧地区)
These days Lincang is little visited by tourists.  Mostly it is used by those travelling directly between Dali and Jinghong, or Jinghong and Dehong. See the Map of Lincang online at Yunnan Tourism.

Entry from Laos
When entering China from Laos, you arrive via the Boten border point.  From there, catch a bus up to the nearest town, Mengla.  From Mengla, most travellers head straight to Jinghong or Kunming.  There are other border points, but they are not open to foreigners.

Entry from Vietnam
Chinese visas can be obtained from the Chinese Consulate at 40C Tran Phu, Hanoi. It's open 8:30-11AM, so arrive before 10:30. It takes 3 working days, though you can get it same day if you are willing to pay. You will need a couple of passport photos when applying and US$20 when picking it up. You must pay in USD - they will not accept RMB or Dong. The visa is valid for entry to China within the next three months. After entry you will have 30 days unless you have requested longer. You will also receive a single entry visa unless you request (and pay) for more. -- Mostly by bec99

Crossing to Laos
Get a bus to Mengla from Jinghong, then change buses to the Boten border point.  Visas can be obtained on arrival at the border. There are no other border points open to foreigners.

Crossing to Burma
There have been various reports regarding the possibility of crossing here.  Generally, it's considered illegal to cross by land, meaning that flights from Kunming are the main option. I personally saw a European cross from Burma back in to China
with a local, without a bag.  It may be possible to take short day trips across the border, though this is probably illegal.  Many Burmese illegally cross the border daily.  It is easy for Chinese to apply for a permit to cross, and many traders cross throughout the day.  If you do somehow manage to cross, there's a good map online of Shan State that might be worth looking at.

Crossing to Vietnam
You can cross to Vietnam from Hekou. Visas are not available at the border, and must be obtained from the Vietnamese consulate in the Camellia Hotel, Kunming.  There is a railroad which runs from Kunming to Hekou and onward to Hanoi

The following excerpt is from Camps and Trails in China by Roy Champan Andrews of the Asiatic Zoölogical Expedition of the American Museum of Natural History, 1916-1917:

"Some time before our arrival a tunnel on the railroad from Hanoi to Yün-nan Fu (Kunming) had caved in and for almost a month trains had not been running. It was now in operation, however, but all luggage had to be transferred by hand at the broken tunnel and consequently must not exceed eighty-five pounds in weight. This meant repacking our entire equipment and three days of hard work. M. Dupontés arranged to have our 4000 pounds of baggage put in a special third class carriage with our "boys" in attendance and in this way saved the expedition a considerable amount of money. He personally went with us to the station to arrange for our comfort with the chef de gare, telegraphed ahead at every station upon the railroad, and gave us an open letter to all officials; in fact there was nothing which he left undone.

The railroad is a remarkable engineering achievement for it was constructed in great haste through a difficult mountainous range. Yün-nan is an exceedingly rich province and the French were quick to see the advantages of drawing its vast trade to their own seaports. The British were already making surveys to construct a railroad from Bhamo on the headwaters of the Irawadi River across Yün-nan to connect with the Yangtze, and the French were anxious to have their road in operation some time before the rival line could be completed.

Owing to its hasty construction and the heavy rainfall, or perhaps to both, the tunnels and bridges frequently cave in or are washed away and the railroad is chiefly remarkable for the number of days in the year in which it does not operate; nevertheless the French deserve great credit for their enterprise in extending their line to Yün-nan Fu (Kunming) over the mountains where there is a tunnel or bridge almost every mile of the way. While it was being built through the fever-stricken jungles of Tonking the coolies died like flies, and it was necessary to suspend all work during the summer months.

The scenery along the railroad is marvelous and the traveling is by no means uncomfortable, but the hotels in which one stops at night are wretched."

Related Links

Hosted at pratyeka.